A substance capable of adsorbing. A natural or artificial finely porous solid with a large external and (or) an inner surface, where the adsorption of gases or liquids flows.

A type of metalware. It is ungalvanized annealed (heat-treated) metallic fiber made out of steel billets.
"This is a new class of adsorbents consisting mainly of carbon (up to 92% of the ash-free product), an organic substance that looks like black powder. The material is suitable for sorption purification of water as well as cleansing any solid surfaces of dissolved organic substances and petroleum products of medium and high molecular weight, dyes, surfactants, pesticides, etc. (full list here). It is frequently used for eliminating oil spills, purifying industrial effluents, primary filtration of municipal sewage, purification of amine solutions and production of high, medium and low performance filters. "

The formation of vapour cavities in a liquid – i.e. small liquid-free zones ("bubbles" or "voids") – that are the consequence of forces acting upon the liquid. It usually occurs when a liquid is subjected to rapid changes of pressure that cause the formation of cavities where the pressure is relatively low. When subjected to higher pressure, the voids implode and can generate an intense shockwave.

Coking coal, also known as metallurgical coal, is used to create coke, one of the key inputs for the production of steel. Coke is produced by heating coking coals in a coke oven in a reducing atmosphere.
Additives for fuel used to improve the combustion process, increasing the octane or cetane fuel number for higher compression fuel or act as corrosion inhibitors or oxidation of lubricants. Types of additives include metal corrosion inhibitors, oxygenates and antioxidants cleaning agents. Some additives contain heavy environmental risks.
The liquid substance which is the main fuel for diesel engines. Usually, this term means fuel derived from kerosene-gas oil fractions after a straight distillation of crude oil.
Device used for heating and cooling of liquids and gases in the processes of food, residential, petroleum, chemical, petrochemical, gas and many other industries.
Liquid or gaseous substance used to transfer thermal energy
A property of a substance to repel water.
Grinding machine used to cut waste and recycled materials.
Water, suitable for use in industrial processes, but undrinkable. Produced by incomplete treatment of industrial and domestic wastewater from salty sea or other natural and mine water, from water circulation systems at concentrating, metallurgical and other industries.
The oily residue liquid obtained after the light distillates (gasoline, kerosene and gas oil) have been extracted out of oil.
Is a cable made of steel brassed wire. Steel cord is used as a reinforcing material for the production of various rubber products: conveyor belts, V-belts, high pressure hoses, etc. Commonly used for automobile tires production.
Oil refineries capable of processing up to 1 million tons of oil per year.
Municipal solid waste (abbr.), commonly known as trash or garbage (US), refuse or rubbish (UK) is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public.
(sometimes called a tank farm, installation or oil terminal) is an industrial facility for the storage of oil and/or petrochemical products and from which these products are usually transported to end users or further storage facilities. An oil depot typically has tankage, either above ground or underground, and gantries for the discharge of products into road tankers or other vehicles (such as barges) or pipelines.
Is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas.
A capacity used for storage, short-term storage and accounting "raw" and marketable oil.
It is a complex mixture of over 500 hydrocarbons with smaller amounts of alkane cyclic and aromatic compounds.Petrol is most often produced by the fractional distillation of crude oil, with further treatment to enhance its Octane rating (number).
A production facility composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining crude oil into high-octane motor fuel (gasoline/petrol), diesel oil, liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), jet aircraft fuel, kerosene, heating fuel oils, lubricating oils, asphalt and petroleum coke;
A thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis typically occurs under pressure and at operating temperatures above 430° C.
Product of solid fuels, combustible waste and industrial / agricultural production processing. Obtained as a result of thermochemical transformation of a solid fuel, both in the absence of air (coking, carbonization) and the combustion process with a deficiency of air.
Pyrolysis oil sometimes also known as biocrude or biooil, is a synthetic fuel under investigation as substitute for petroleum. It is extracted by biomass to liquid technology of destructive distillation from dried biomass in a reactor at temperature of about 500°C with subsequent cooling. Pyrolytic oil (or bio-oil) is a kind of tar and normally contains too high levels of oxygen to be a hydrocarbon. As such it is distinctly different from similar petroleum products.
The process of separating the product into fractions according to their boiling points. Used as raw oil, oil-like hydrocarbon mixtures wide fractions, not aggressive to carbon steel oil, pyrolysis oils, glycerin, etc.
Variety of materials and products, which, after the initial full use (wear) can be used in the production of recycled as raw materials. Include industrial and domestic wastes.
A chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas distilled from crude oil, typically having low octane ratings, into high-octane liquid products called reformates, which are premium blending stocks for high-octane gasoline. The process converts low-octane linear hydrocarbons (paraffins) into high-octane branched alkanes (isoparaffins) and cyclic naphthenes, which are partially dehydrogenated into high-octane aromatic hydrocarbons. The dehydrogenation produces significant amounts of byproduct hydrogen gas, which is fed into other refinery processes such as hydrocracking. A side reaction is hydrogenolysis, which produces light hydrocarbons of lower value, such methane, ethane, propane, and butanes.
An airtight vessel in which substances are heated for a chemical reaction producing gaseous products to be collected in a collection vessel or for further processing. Such industrial-scale retorts are used in shale oil extraction and the production of charcoal.
Processed product derived from waste tires and tire rubber by grinding in industrial shredder.
Straight-run gasoline (Petrol) (directly from the refinery distillation column) has an octane number of about 70. In other words, straight-run petrol has the same knocking properties as a mixture of 70% iso-Octane and 30% n-Heptane. Many of these compounds are straight chain alkanes. Cracking, isomerization, and other refining processes are used to increase the octane rating of gasoline to minimum 91. Anti-knock agents are also added to further increase the octane rating.
A lubricant consisting of chemical compounds that are artificially made (synthesized). Synthetic lubricants can be manufactured using chemically modified petroleum components rather than whole crude oil, but can also be synthesized from other raw materials. Synthetic oil is used as a substitute for lubricant refined from petroleum when operating in extremes of temperature, because, in general, it provides superior mechanical and chemical properties to those found in traditional mineral oils. Aircraft jet engines, for example, require the use of synthetic oils, whereas aircraft piston engines do not. Synthetic lubricants are also used in metal stamping to provide environmental and other benefits when compared to conventional petroleum and animal fat based products. These products are also referred to as "non-oil" or "oil free".
Any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. Municipal wastewater is usually conveyed in a combined sewer or sanitary sewer, and treated at a wastewater treatment plant.